Agriculture in Egypt
Agricultureis the mainstay of the Egyptian economy, contributing 11.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. 28 percent of all jobs, and over 55 percent of employment in Egypt come from agriculture. With small area of arable land available, and with irregular and insufficient water supplies, Egypt’s agricultural sector remains one of the most productive in the world.
Agricultural Seasons in Egypt
There are three agricultural seasons in Egypt: the winter season, the summer season and the Nile season. However, Production season for permanent or annual crops such as sugar cane, fruit crops and timber extend to a whole agricultural year.
Egypt’s marine fisheries account for approximately 11 million feddans, as well as lake fisheries, which include the Manzala lakes, El-Borlos, Bardawil, Mariout, Lake Nasser and others.
Competitive Strength of Egypt for Agribusiness
The following factors drive Egypt’s agricultural prowess in agriculture:
- The climate which allows for extended and extra growing seasons- is the ability to cultivate winter crops from November to May, when the agricultural production becomes very limited in Europe and Northern Asia,
- Location Straddling Africa and Asia, situated on the Mediterranean, and midway between East and West, Egypt is ideally located for exporting agricultural products to all major consumer markets.
- Egypt has the largest agriculture workforce in the region, benefiting from access to skilled workers and highly competitive wages.
Source of Water Supplies
Egyptian agriculture is almost entirely dependent on irrigation. More than 90 percent of Egypt is desert. Egypt exports her agricultural produces to the Arab. The main exports are tea, coffee, white chocolate, potatoes and frozen vegetables.
Why you should do agribusiness in Egypt
You should consider investing in Agribusiness in Egypt because of:
- Existence of well-developed infrastructure.
- Availability of arable Land.
- Existence of water resources.
- Existence of huge consumer market for agriculture products.
- Liberalization of the agriculture sector.
- Availability of skilled labour.
Common food crops grown in Egypt
Cereals. Rice is one of the major field crops, grown on nearly 500 000 feddans, and is considered the second most important export crop after cotton. Wheat is the major winter cereal grain crop and the third major crop in terms of area planted (about 600 000 feddans). Maize is the second most important crop (750 000 feddans), but at least 50 percent of its production is used for livestock and poultry feed.
Fibre crops. Cotton has traditionally been the most important fibre crop in Egypt and the leading agricultural export crop.
Sugar crops. Sugar cane is the main sugar crop in upper Egypt. It is grown in large areas in the Nile delta, and contributes to the sugar industry in Egypt.
Food legumes. These include a number of bean crops that are used for human consumption, such as broad beans and soybeans.
Forage crops. Egyptian clover, berseem, is the major winter forage crop cultivated in the Nile Valley and delta. It occupies an area which totals 1.2 million feddans.
Fruits. Citrus, primarily oranges that represent 85 percent of total citrus production, makes up 50 percent of total fruit production. The fruit-planted area has expanded over the last three decades to reach about 200 000 feddans. Egyptians also grow grapes, stone fruits and pome fruits.
Vegetables. Tomatoes are grown in three seasons – winter, summer and autumn – on about 3 percent of Egypt’s total planted area. Potatoes are the second most important vegetable after tomatoes, both in terms of cash value and total tonnage produced.
Obstacles facing Agriculture in Egypt
Pest is a major obstacle facing the production of more food for Egypt’s fast-growing population. The wide distribution, extensive host range and involvement with other micro-organisms in disease complexes put nematodes on top of the list of plant pests affecting agricultural production in the country.
Egypt is the world’s third producers of tilapia and number one in Africa. Generally, Egypt ranks number one in Africa and sixth in the world in fish farming. In 2019, Egypt’s annual production of fish hit two million tons recording self-sufficiency of 85 percent. Of those, 1.6 million tons are the output of fisheries. The rest came from the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Nile Rivers, and lakes.
In the same year, Egypt exported 35,000 tons of fish, and imported 325,000 tons of sardines, herring, and mackerel. Going by the forgone, investing in fish farming business in Egypt would make a good investment.
Despite the fact that small area of arable land is available, and with irregular and insufficient water supplies, Egypt’s agricultural sector remains one of the most productive in the world. Investing in either food crops or fish farming in Egypt will yield a good return, since the market is readily available for you to sell your produces.